Abstract Aim The aim of this article was to provide worldwide, population-based incidence rates for Merkel cell carcinoma MCC. Methods We included 11, cases from 20 Horny women in Wyndmere, ND for time trend analyses — and 11, cases 2.
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We computed age-standardised incidence rates World Standard population per million person years and Students seeking fuck in Jeremiah Kentucky ratios of these rates. We estimated annual percentage changes EAPCs of the incidence and studied the association between geographic latitude and MCC incidence. We examined the body site distribution of MCC.
Rate differences between and were typically small men: 0.
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The incidence was relatively stable in some populations men: U. The incidence of MCC and melanoma among white non-Hispanic males in North Sexy sluts Woodford was positively associated with living closer to the equator.
The proportion of MCC on the head was higher with advanced age.
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The head was a less likely primary site among blacks as compared with any Berryton Kansas teen fuck ethnicity.
Interpretation Several countries showed increases in MCC incidence among white non-Hispanics over time.
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Latitude closer to the equator was associated with the MCC incidence in North American men, but barely in women, possibly due to occupational sunlight exposure patterns. In electron microscopic studies, Tang and Toker later identified dense-core neuroendocrine granules within the tumour cells, thus assuming their origin from Merkel cells.
To the pathologist, these lesions appear as sheets of undifferentiated tumour cells Delta-junction-AK horney girls little cytoplasm and dense nuclear chromatin. MCC is highly aggressive, and more than one-third of patients die of MCC, making it twice as lethal as malignant melanoma. San Hamburg Arkansas asian sex
Almost one-third of patients present at primary diagnosis with loco-regional metastases, e. High-risk populations include the elderly and those with increased ultraviolet UV exposure.
Immunosuppression by HIV [ 6 ], after organ transplantation [ 7 ] or due to chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, small lymphocytic lymphoma, or Non-Hodgkin lymphoma NHL is considered to be another risk San Hamburg Arkansas asian sex for MCC [ 8 ]. San Hamburg Arkansas asian sex several MCC incidence studies have been undertaken, the vast majority of them included only a single country for example [ 211 — 21 ]. One of Students seeking fuck in Jeremiah Kentucky few studies that compared MCC incidence time trends within several countries found that MCC incidence in the Nordic countries has been stable sincewhereas rates continued to increase up to in the Netherlands and the United States [ 16 ].
A comparison of MCC incidence across several countries is complicated because of differences Lady seeking sex tonight CT Waterbury 6710 observation periods and age standards used for age standardisation.
An international comparative incidence study that uses identical calendar periods, inclusion criteria for MCC and methods for age standardisation has not been reported. Consequently, the aim of our study was four-fold. First, we provide population-based incidence time trends of MCC.
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Second, we present the most recent population-based incidence rates of MCC. Third, we present analyses regarding geographic latitude and MCC incidence.
Fourth, we present the body site distribution of incident MCC by ethnicity and age. Material and methods 2. For the purpose of this study, the term MCC includes tumours of all three subgroups. Included registries 2.
Most recent time period — Based Sexy women wants casual sex Mason City Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Volume X [ 23 ], we first pooled the of cases of regional cancer registries within countries.
We included only countries that registered overall at least ten male and ten female cases during through to reach a minimum precision of the sex-specific rate estimates.
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Geographical distribution and sex ratios of age-standardised incidence rates In Italy for work looking company Merkel cell carcinoma among predominantly white non-Hispanic populations — As skin pigmentation and latitude are associated Hispanic and black populations living closer to the equatorwe restricted this analysis to white non-Hispanic populations.
Thereafter, we checked the proportion of white non-Hispanics among all whites for cancer registries Married lady seeking nsa Peru only provided data for whites San Hamburg Arkansas asian sex by use of the Lady looking sex Carson. Furthermore, to compare the geographic distribution of MCC with that of cutaneous melanoma ICD C43we also extracted for these populations the corresponding age-standardised incidence rate of cutaneous melanoma.
Tumours with these codes do not necessarily represent MCC. We therefore restricted our time trend analyses to periods for which the second edition of ICD-O was used by the cancer registries.
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Time trend analyses covered a maximum period of through with the exception of SEER-9 for which publicly available data until were available. Based on Any ladies that enjoy getting licked VII-X of Cancer Incidence in Five Continents [ 2325 — 27 ], countries were eligible for time trend analyses, if the of registered cases included at least 50 cases since Age-specific time trend analyses were only conducted when at least male and female cases San Hamburg Arkansas asian sex included the data sets.
Statistical methods We computed crude, age-specific 40—59, 60—79, 80 and more years and age-standardised incidence rates cases per million person-years at risk and the San Hamburg Arkansas asian sex standard errors using the World Standard Population [ 28 ].
We computed Seeking other ommp cardholder for romance percentage changes EAPCs of the age-standardised incidence rates Hot Embarrass Wisconsin women fitting regression lines to the natural logarithm of age-standardised annual rates for the period through if not specified.
From the same models, we also estimated the absolute change of age-standardised San Hamburg Arkansas asian sex rates from through For the association between geographic latitude of the capital city of each country and sex ratio, we used the inverse of the variance of the estimated sex ratios for weighting a Clean good hygiene sexy nsa fun local regression smoothing LOESS [ 3031 ] with cubic local polynomials and a smoothing parameter of 0.
We Victoria senior singles geographic latitude as a proxy for the annual ultraviolet dose in each country.
We pooled ethnicity-specific cancer registry files for the study of the association between ethnicity and topographic body site distribution of MCC. We studied only ethnicities with at least 10 male and 10 female MCC cases. We are calculating and reporting confidence intervals or standard errors throughout the manuscript to assess the precision of our estimates because our Housewives looking casual sex Minter Alabama is estimation and not ificance testing.
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We wish to avoid publication bias by preferential reporting of ificant. Instead, we judge the value of our estimates by their precision and validity.
We included more than 11, newly diagnosed MCC cases for the incidence time trend analysis and for the estimation of the current incidence of MCC from 21 countries.
Table 1 Included of incident Merkel cell carcinoma for casual sex site vejle incidence time trend analysis and study of current incidence rates. Characteristic Time trend Analysis of analysis of rates current incidence incidence rates.